【学术预告】Cascading Failures and Recovery in Complex Networks
报告人：Professor Shlomo Havlin, Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Prof. Shlomo Havlin is one of the pioneers of a number of fields in statistical physics and its implications for complex systems in different areas. Prof. Havlin deals with the application of knowledge in physics to the broadest disciplines such as social networks, Interdependent networks, technological networks, economic networks, physiological systems and DNA function. Prof. Havlin has published 11 books and over 800 articles, like Nature, Science, Nature Physics, Nature Communication, PNAS and PRL etc. in leading scientific journals over the past forty-eight years. His scholarly work has triggered several new fields of research and has been cited over 73,000 times. In addition to the Lilienfeld Prize, Prof. Havlin is the recipient of numerous awards and citations, among them the Landau Prize for Outstanding Research, the Humboldt Award (Germany), the Nicholson Medal from the American Physical Society, the Chaim Weizmann Prize for Exact Sciences, and in 2014 the Rothschild Prize in Physical, Chemical Sciences and "Order of the Star of Italy", one of Italy's highest civilian honors, which is given by the Italian President. The Israel Prize (Israel's top prize) was awarded to Prof. Havlin in 2018 for immense achievements in advancing science and his tremendous contribution to increasing Bar-Ilan University's standing in Israel and around the world. Prof. Havlin has served as President of the Israel Physical Society, Director of the Minerva Center for Mesoscopics, Fractals and Neural Networks at Bar-Ilan, Head of the Israel Science Foundation National Excellence Center for Complex Networks, and in many more capacities. He continues to publish new research and to guide young researchers in many institutes all over the world.
A framework for studying the vulnerability and the recovery of networks and interdependent networks will be presented. In interdependent networks, when nodes in one network fail, they cause dependent nodes in other networks to also fail. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures and to a sudden fragmentation of the system. I will present analytical solutions for the critical thresholds and the giant component of a network of n interdependent networks. I will show, that the general theory has many novel features that are not present in the classical network theory. When recovery of components is possible global spontaneous failure and recovery of the networks as well as hysteresis phenomena occur. The theory suggests an optimal repair strategy for a system of systems. I will also show that interdependent networks embedded in space are significantly more vulnerable compared to non-embedded networks. In particular, small localized attacks of zero fraction may lead to cascading failures and catastrophic consequences.
 J. Gao, S. Buldyrev, H. E. Stanley, S. Havlin, Nature Physics, 8, 40 (2012).
 A. Bashan et al, Nature Physics, 9, 667 (2013)
 A Majdandzic et al, Nature Physics 10 (1), 34 (2014); Nature Comm. 7, 10850 (2016)
 Daqing Li, B. Fu, Y. Wang, G. Lu, Y. Berezin, H. E. Stanley, S. Havlin, PNAS 112, 669 (2015)
 J. Zhao, Daqing Li, H. Sanhedai, S. Havlin, Nature Comm. 7, 10094 (2016)
 X. Yuan et al, PNAS 114, 3311 (2017)
 G. Dong et al, PNAS 115, 6911 (2018)